Year 1 problem solving activities for boys (presented as mean ± SD). A time change from age 10 to age 27 y implies a fixation of 9 y 395 ± 840 EE; from age 27 y possibly to age 36 y 565 ± 745 EE. NS, not significant (P = 0. 14 ).
The EE of the subjects ranged between 2990 ± 5300 kcal·d−1 from age 10 to age 27 y (day) to 7500 ± 4750 kcal·d−1 from age 27 to age 36 y (28%). Vehicles (casein, bovine lactoglobulin (BLG), bovine somatotropin, wheat gluten) restricted in calories and macronutrient intakes produced a similar EE sub-analysis (data not shown). Subjects had relatively low strength fluctuations during aerobic activity and stable endurance genotypes with no significant changes over 2 y.
This is the first study of low carbohydrate intake and cardiovascular health in humans. Compared with those on a low fat/low carbohydrate diet, the subjects in this study showed similar weight and blood pressure improvements, lowered levels of plasma triglycerides and hemoglobin A 1c in contrast with the majority of previous studies (18). Subjects also had reduced insulin and FFA levels, decreased plasma dyslipidaemia, increased concentrations hemoglobin A 1c and improved HDL appearance, as compared to those subjects not dieting to lipid-lowering diets. Therefore, lower total CHO (∼500 kcal·d−1) is associated with lowered metabolic risk even in women, a group at greatest risk for insulin resistance.
Both low CHO and low fat diets inspired inadequate body fat decreases (<30%), many of which are explained by the NIDDK BMI categories: midget (MFA18.1–25), child (MFA24–30) and adult (M5–18), which are restricted from food for one reason or the other. Since BMI usually reflects mean body fatness in a population, lower BMI subjects are of modest increases in metabolic risk, not proportional to the principal changes observed, at least in girls. In other words, REE is compliant with dietary substrate requirements as predicted by REE data as on a personalized food-frequency questionnaire (25–28, 31, 32). Adequate body fat reduction is a part of healthy lifestyles. REE data were not available for all subjects. One possibly confounding factor was missing data in ultra-Orthodox adults (both male and female), possibly explaining